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INSPECTION SERVICES - Pre And Post Weld Heat Treatment

Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass. Heat treatment involves the use of heating or chilling, normally to extreme temperatures, to achieve a desired result such as hardening or softening of a material. Heat treatment techniques include annealing, case hardening, precipitation strengthening,tempering, normalizing and quenching. It is noteworthy that while the term heat treatment applies only to processes where the heating and cooling are done for the specific purpose of altering properties intentionally, heating and cooling often occur incidentally during other manufacturing processes such as hot forming or welding.

Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) reduces the residual stresses formed during welding. It also restores the macro structure of the steel. Mandatory in high pressure applications, constructors have to strictly follow PWHT requirements to avoid component failures

PWHT eliminates the effects by heating, soaking, and cooling the weld area in a controlled manner to temperatures below the first transformation point, giving the macro structure sufficient time to readjust to its original state and removing the residual stress.

Stress relieving is a technique to remove or reduce the internal stresses created in a metal. These stresses may be caused in a number of ways, ranging from cold working to non-uniform cooling. Stress relieving is usually accomplished by heating a metal below the lower critical temperature and then cooling uniformly